GNSS vs GPS Technology: A Comprehensive Comparison


Location-aware technology has become pervasive in the modern world, enabling transformative applications across transportation, logistics, automation, augmented reality and more. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) provide the vital positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) data that underpins much of this revolution.

But what exactly is GNSS, how precisely does it differ from GPS, and why should cybersecurity professionals care? This extensive guide aims to answer these questions and more on what is one of the most strategically vital technologies worldwide.

Defining GNSS and GPS

At a basic level:

  • GNSS refers collectively to the global constellations of navigation satellites from the US, Russia, Europe, China as well as augmentation systems that provide ubiquitous geolocation capabilities.
  • GPS refers specifically to the extensively deployed satellite navigation system built and operated by the United States.

However, as we will explore in-depth, the relationship between GNSS and GPS runs deeper technically and strategically. Next generation positioning and timing infrastructure will need resilience against threats like spoofing, reliable access to signals from space, and ability to deliver advanced capabilities for autonomous platforms.

Understanding these vital issues impacting daily life and the economy is important for cybersecurity experts as we enter a new age of connectivity.

GNSS Architecture and Segments

Global Navigation Satellite Systems like GPS, GLONASS and Galileo may differ somewhat in their technical implementation, but their overall high-level architecture consisting of three key segments is similar:

Space Segment

Consists of constellations of satellites transmitting coded signals containing timing and positioning data. For example:

  • GPS: Network of 31 active satellites as of 2022
  • GLONASS: 24 Active satellites over 3 orbital planes

Satellites house extremely precise atomic clocks critical for signal timing and navigation accuracy. Various ground stations monitor and maintain these spacecraft as they orbit the earth every 12 hours.

Control Segment

Comprises of a global network of ground infrastructure that keeps GNSS constellations operating optimally:

  • Tracking stations – Monitor satellite signal metrics and orbit data
  • Ground stations – Send spacecraft commanding and control information
  • Master control facilities – Manage deployment and overall system integrity

Continual upgrades to the control segment software and hardware are essential to maintain high precision navigation solutions to users worldwide.

User Segment

The user segment refers to the billions of receivers across the world that process satellite signals and convert raw data into meaningful location, timing and speed outputs that users depend on. This encompasses:

  • Chipsets and antennae in consumer devices like smartphones
  • Maritime and aviation navigation systems
  • High precision GNSS receivers used in science and surveying
  • Military user equipment

Ranging from mass-market to specialized needs, GNSS user devices now permeate everyday life while enabling capability growth across industries.

How GNSS Works

By combining these three fundamental segments, GNSS provides precise positioning, velocity and timing (PVT) solutions globally. Here is the flow of how this is achieved:

  • Satellites continuously broadcast specially coded navigation signals and data from space. Signals contain precise timestamp from onboard atomic clock.
  • GNSS antennas receive these signals via line-of-sight, then pass them to receivers for processing.
  • User algorithms measure tiny differences between times signal was broadcast and received to calculate position.
  • Data from four or more satellites allows trilateration for figuring out user location in 3D coordinate space.
  • Advanced techniques like SBAS and GBAS augment GNSS for even higher accuracy to within few centimeters rather than meters.

By leveraging and combining signals from multiple GNSS constellations encompassing over a hundred satellites in the US, Russian, European and Chinese systems, users enjoy enhanced coverage, precision and reliability compared to reliance upon the standalone American GPS infrastructure.

GNSS Signals and Frequencies

The various GNSS constellations transmit signals using dedicated frequencies across L-band spectrum allocation:

System Frequency Band Signals
GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.60 MHz), L5 (1176.45 MHz) L1C/A, L1C, L2C, L5
GLONASS L1(1602MHz + k*562.5 kHz), L2(1246 MHz + k*437.5 kHz), L3(1202MHz) L1 C/A, L1 P, L2 C/A, L3
Galileo E1 (1575.42 MHz), E5 (1191.795 MHz), E6 (1278.75 MHz) E1, E5A, E5 AltBOC, E5B, E6
BeiDou B1 (1561.098 MHz), B3 (1268.52 MHz), B2 (1207.14 MHz) B1I D1, B3I D1/D2

With new signals like L5/E5 providing enhanced capabilities, professional GNSS receivers can track multiple constellations across frequency bands to deliver robust, high accuracy solutions across challenging environments.

Comparing GPS and GNSS Capabilities

Now that we’ve covered some basics, let’s analyze the key differentiation in capabilities:

Some key points:

  • GNSS provides augmented coverage, precision and reliability by combining overlapping satellites from the US, Russia, EU and China.
  • GPS provides independent global location capabilities but with limitations in continuity and accuracy.
  • By contributing their respective satellites systems, countries enhance collective navigation solutions under a cooperative model.
  • For users, accessing multi-GNSS infrastructure ensures assured location and timing worldwide.

Let‘s analyze additional vital performance parameters:

Time-To-First-Fix (TTFF)

This refers to the time needed for a receiver to locate initial satellite signals and calculate an initial location fix after being powered on. GNSS enables faster overall TTFF by offering wider satellites visibility and optimized geometry. While standalone GPS can achieve swift TTFF under ideal conditions, performance degrades significantly in challenging environments with limited sky access.


Continuity refers to an on-going GNSS receiver maintaining acceptable navigation signature without interruption over duration of a particular operation/service.

By combining multiple constellations, GNSS provides enhanced continuity of PNT data. GPS alone remains vulnerable to line-of-sight disruption in certain environments.


Integrity gauges the ability of a navigation system to provide warnings within a specified timeframe when it detects issues that impact accuracy, availability or continuity. This could translate into horizontal error thresholds set for a landing aircraft approach, for instance.

Augmentation systems like WAAS, EGNOS, SBAS play an important role in enabling integrity monitoring for safety-critical GNSS applications across civil aviation, rail and maritime transport via independent cross-checking of system health.

Spoofing and Jamming Resilience

The radiowaves-based signaling mechanism underlying GNSS involuntarily exposes systems to nefarious threats like:

  • Spoofing: Transmitting engineered fake GNSS-like signals to fool receivers into calculating false positioning or timing data. Spoofing could allow hijacking autonomous vehicle movements, for example.
  • Jamming: Overpowering authentic GNSS signals via brute force to deny access to satellite infrastructure and cause disruption.

To counter spoofing and jamming risks, GNSS receivers leverage:

  • Multi-frequency monitoring
  • Advanced signal authentication
  • Null steering antennas
  • Signals from multiple constellations making spoofing exponentially complex for adversaries.

For cybersecurity experts, GNSS infrastructure security and resilience have become vital when guarding GPS-enabled applications against emerging risks.

GNSS Across Industries

Given their unmatched capabilities in location and timing enablement, GNSS and GPS utilization now spans across critical infrastructure sectors:


  • Area navigation and wide area augmentation
  • Landing systems
  • Aircraft tracking


  • Fleet and cargo monitoring
  • Navigational chartplotting
  • Vessel traffic control

Road Transport

  • Location-based services in vehicles
  • Self-driving navigation
  • Real-time logistics monitoring


  • Signalling and speed enforcement
  • Asset tracking

In the United States alone, GPS technology impacts over $1 trillion of economic activity annually while helping save lives. Ubiquitous access to increasingly precise location and timing capabilities unlocks the next phase of mobility innovation across automotive, drones and augmented reality while revolutionizing sectors like telecommunications and agriculture.

Case Study: Precision Agriculture powered by GNSS

Location-aware precision agriculture leverages GNSS for transformative productivity via:

  • Auto-guidance systems to steer advanced farm equipment through fields accurately.
  • Geo-mapping of soil conditions, topography for data-driven crop planning optimization.
  • Tracking livestock grazing patterns.
  • Variable rate technology for precise spraying based on environment.

By boosting efficiency sustainably while increasing per-acre yields through precision, GNSS adoption in agriculture continues growing rapidly.

The Future Trajectory

GNSS and GPS infrastructure constantly evolves to meet expanding needs for location-data worldwide across consumers and industry:

  • Modernization: New satellites, signals and ground infrastructure continues being added annually across GPS, Galileo, BeiDou.
  • Chipsets: Improving semiconductor fabrication enables mass-market devices to tap multi-GNSS signals for robust location experiences.
  • 3D Positioning: New land-surveying capable antennas and augmented signals will expand precise positioning capabilities from 2D to global 3D.
  • LEO and 5G Integration: Networks of low earth orbit satellites plus 5G connectivity to GNSS receivers engender resilient location/timing across environments.

Additionally, exponential adoption in autonomous platforms ranging from self-driving cars, train systems to last-mile drones will necessitate ultra-reliable access to precise geospatial context continuously to navigate safely.

With GNSS utilized pervasively across civilian and government systems globally, cybersecurity strategy must prioritize ensuring the resilience of location infrastructure as risk surfaces expand in the hyperconnected era.


Location awareness represents a paradigm shift in enabling seamless experiences across the physical and digital realms while opening up new frontiers in mobility. As GNSS infrastructure modernizes and gets augmented by 5G plus low earth orbit satellites, access to ubiquitous precise positioning and timing data will transform economics and daily life globally over the coming decade.

For cybersecurity leaders, it is vital we help support this revolution securely by designing resilient connectivity for autonomous platforms and guarding against emerging threats like spoofing across critical infrastructure relying on GNSS. Robust and trustworthy location/timing systems will underpin breakthroughs spanning augmented reality metaverses, self-driving vehicles, connected wearables and context-aware smart cities in the future. By working collaboratively across sectors to modernize this shared space infrastructure, we can fuel incredible innovation potential safely to the benefit of society.