Data Clean Rooms – The Future of Privacy-Focused Audience Targeting

The impending death of third-party cookies and rising data privacy regulations like GDPR signal a major shift in how brands can target and analyze audience data. Data clean rooms have emerged as a crucial solution that enables marketers to continue audience targeting and analytics in a privacy-focused manner.

What Are Data Clean Rooms and Why Do We Need Them?

In simple terms, a data clean room is a secure technology environment that allows different organizations to match and analyze their data sets without exposing raw user-level data.

For example, a media publisher and an advertiser can match their data to identify common audiences while maintaining complete user privacy via anonymization and encryption. This is extremely beneficial in a cookieless future where brands struggle to link online and offline data or measure marketing performance.

Data clean rooms became essential as repeated high-profile data breaches led governments worldwide to implement strict data privacy regulations. With data clean rooms, organizations can collaborate securely while remaining compliant with regulations like GDPR and CCPA.

How Do Data Clean Rooms Work?

Though different providers may vary in methodology, the overall working process of data clean rooms is similar:

1. Ingesting and Matching Data: First-party data from advertisers is combined with second-party data from publishers, ad platforms etc. into one database. The system matches common audiences in the datasets via encryption without exposing user details.

2. Anonymizing Data: Identifying information like names, emails etc. is programmatically masked or removed, ensuring complete user privacy throughout the process.

3. Analyzing Data: Using methodologies like differential privacy and contextual integrity, aggregated analysis is run to generate insights on audience behaviors, trends etc.

4. Data Access and Activation: Clean rooms output privacy-focused segmented audiences, propensity models, measurement metrics etc. which advertisers can activate for targeting, personalization and analytics.

data clean room workflow

Data clean room workflow (Image source: LiveRamp)

As shown above, data clean rooms enable brands to analyze matched aggregate audiences safely without accessing raw exposed user data.

Key Benefits of Data Clean Rooms

Here are some the most significant advantages of using data clean rooms:

1. Measurement Without Cookies: Data clean rooms provide an accurate and compliant alternative to third-party cookies for tracking campaign performance, attribution and digital lift measurement.

2. Compliance With Data Regulations: By anonymizing data and limiting raw data access, clean rooms allow brands to collaborate while meeting consumer data privacy requirements mandated by regulations.

3. Protecting Consumer Privacy: Users maintain complete data privacy as matching happens via one-way encryption. Personally identifiable information remains secure and hidden.

4. Unified Data Analytics: Disparate data from multiple sources can be aggregated for a unified view of target audiences, revealing trends impossible to see in silos.

5. Secure Data Partnerships: Clean rooms enable secure collaboration between companies to drive innovation without restrictive contracts or loss of proprietary data or trade secrets.

Challenges With Data Clean Rooms

Despite significant advantages, some limitations exist:

  • Interoperability: Walled gardens like Google & Facebook only allow clean room analysis within their platforms. Transferring data between platforms is restricted.

  • Data Quality: As external providers match data, brands give up control and rely on provider quality checks to ensure accuracy.

  • Standardization: Each clean room uses different methodologies for capabilities like encryption and output formats. Portability between platforms is limited.

  • Data Security: Though unlikely due to robust security, data breaches exposing proprietary first-party data remain a risk with any external platform dependency.

Types of Data Clean Rooms

There are three major types of data clean room solutions in the market:

1. Pure/Neutral: Offered by third-party SaaS providers like InfoSum and LiveRamp, pure data clean rooms provide utility-based multi-platform data matching services with contractual protections around proprietary data handling.

2. Walled Gardens: Platforms like Google (Ads Data Hub), Facebook (Clean Rooms), Amazon (Marketing Cloud) offer clean rooms but only for data matching within their platform and partners.

3. Non-Standard Solutions: Specialized providers like BlueConic (CDP) and Snowflake (cloud data platform) have introduced clean room-like matching capabilities for existing customer data use cases.

Determining the right approach depends on specific organizational use cases and platform dependencies. Pure data clean rooms provide the most flexibility for multi-platform activation.

Alternatives to Data Clean Rooms

Though limited in utility, some alternatives to data clean rooms exist:

  • Universal IDs: Assign anonymous identity tokens to map audiences across websites to replace cookies. Limited to known matched audiences only.

  • Contextual Targeting: Target ads based on page content rather than user identity or attributes. Low relevance and performance.

  • Privacy Sandbox: Google‘s proposed secure environment for anonymous audience targeting and analytics. Applicable to Google ecosystem only.

However none offer the flexibility, security and performance of a dedicated clean room solution.

The Future is Bright for Data Clean Rooms

Data clean rooms represent the future of compliant and privacy-focused audience targeting and analytics. Research predicts rapid adoption of clean room solutions:

  • 80% of enterprises to adopt clean rooms by 2023 (Gartner)
  • 10% CAGR growth rate until 2030 (Data Intelo)

As pressures around privacy increase and third-party cookies meet their demise, data clean rooms will emerge as the go-to customer data solution that fuels everything from personalized advertising to product recommendations and more.


Data clean rooms enable marketers to continue targeting and analyzing the highest value audiences in a post-cookie landscape while future-proofing brands against tightening data privacy regulations. Though limitations exist, clean room solutions significantly outperform alternatives in capabilities. As third-party cookie deprecation deadlines approach in 2024, now is the right time for brands jump on the clean room bandwagon before the scramble begins!


  1. Gartner Research
  2. LiveRamp
  3. Data Intelo
  4. Geekflare