Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) Reporting: A Comprehensive Guide

Corporate practices produce significant environmental and social issues that are coming under increasing scrutiny. In 2021, humanity used 1.7 times more natural resources than the Earth can regenerate in a year. We experienced 248 climate change related disasters that cost $343 billion in damages, over three times more than in 2020. The usage of child labor reached a two-decade high, affecting 160 million children. The gap between rich and poor continues to widen dramatically. Gender inequality, food insecurity, access to healthcare, and other issues persist globally.

As a result, politicians, consumers, investors, and NGOs are rightfully demanding more accountability and change from corporations. This new paradigm is forcing businesses to be transparent and publicly disclose detailed non-financial data in order to demonstrate that they are part of the solution to these global issues rather than contributors to the problems.

Enter the emerging practice of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) reporting. In this comprehensive guide as an ESG data and reporting expert, I will first examine what exactly ESG reporting entails and why it matters. I will then provide an overview of common frameworks, metrics, and tools used in the process. Finally, I will share some of the key benefits as well as challenges companies face in disclosing ESG factors. I will also include relevant statistics and real-world examples drawn from my decade of experience in this evolving space.

What is ESG Reporting and Why Does it Matter?

ESG reporting refers to the public disclosure of a wide range of non-financial information by companies related to how their operations impact the environment, society, and the governance of corporations. This reporting to stakeholders has become a critical practice for organizations to showcase how they are addressing the pressing environmental and social issues we face globally.

Specifically, companies publish annual ESG reports to transparently share information with investors, customers, policymakers, local communities, employees, NGOs, and the general public focused on metrics and actions related to:

Environmental – Climate impacts, GHG emissions, resource usage, waste, pollution, biodiversity

Social – Workforce diversity, pay equity, labor relations, local community impacts, product responsibility

Governance – Board independence, executive pay, ethics, data privacy, accountability

The reports include both quantitative metrics and qualitative descriptions of policies, programs, targets, and performance trends in these areas.

But why has ESG reporting grown so rapidly in adoption and importance? A few key reasons:

  • Investor pressure – Institutional investors increasingly incorporate ESG criteria into decisions. 75% of asset managers now integrate ESG into their investment process. Companies are responding to these demands for non-financial transparency.

  • Competitive differentiator – With consumers and talent prioritizing sustainability, ESG is becoming a competitive issue. Companies like Patagonia use their leadership on ESG to stand out.

  • Risk management – Analyzing ESG factors allows identification of potential regulatory, legal, supply chain, and reputational risks.

  • Performance benefits – Firms with strong ESG ratings tend to outperform competitors financially. ESG drives operational excellence.

  • Ethics – Some adoption simply comes from companies recognizing their ethical duty to all stakeholders and the environment.

In recent years, the prominence of ESG reporting has skyrocketed. One analysis found 97% growth in global reporting from 2018 to 2020. It is now a standard practice for most large public companies to issue annual ESG reports with key performance data aligned to established frameworks.

But frameworks and metrics only matter if real performance changes. In my view, ESG reporting should be used to hold companies accountable to tangible improvement.

Major ESG Reporting Frameworks

As ESG reporting has grown, several prominent frameworks have emerged to guide disclosures. While differing in aspects, these major frameworks help standardize reporting:

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

  • Comprehensive global standards for sustainability reporting
  • Covers all ESG factors
  • Indicator codes and detailed methodology
  • Most widely adopted globally

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

  • Industry-specific disclosure standards
  • Focuses on material metrics in each sector
  • Aligned with SEC financial reporting
  • Used by asset managers in investment analysis

Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)

  • Climate change risks and opportunities
  • Scenario analysis for different climate outcomes
  • Resilience of company strategy to climate impacts
  • Aligned with financial statements

International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC)

  • Integrated approach connecting ESG to financial performance
  • Focus on ‘integrated thinking‘ in decision making
  • How ESG creates long-term value creation

World Economic Forum Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics

  • Broad set of ESG metrics relevant to all stakeholders
  • Goes beyond shareholder primacy thinking
  • Built to be more inclusive of societal needs

This diversity of frameworks provides options for companies to adopt established principles tailored to their needs. However, fragmentation also leads to challenges in comparability between corporations. In response, alignment efforts between frameworks are ongoing to develop unified standards.

ESG Reporting Metrics

Within these frameworks, companies must determine which specific metrics to track and disclose that are most relevant to their business model and stakeholders. While certain foundational universal metrics apply to all industries, such as greenhouse gas emissions, workplace safety rates, and board diversity, other metrics should be customized to each company‘s unique operating context.

Here are some examples of common important metrics across the core ESG domains:


  • Greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1, 2, & 3)
  • Energy consumption
  • Water usage rates
  • Waste generation and recycling
  • Air and water pollution levels
  • Deforestation and land impacts
  • Circular economy metrics


  • Employee diversity and inclusion statistics
  • Gender and racial pay gaps
  • Employee engagement levels
  • Health and safety incident rates
  • Product quality and safety metrics
  • Data privacy and security indicators
  • Community investment and impact measures


  • Board diversity, tenure, and independence
  • Executive compensation ratios
  • Auditor ratings and accountability
  • Political contributions and lobbying policies
  • Business ethics violations and fines
  • Supplier codes of conduct

However, there are limitations to simply tracking metrics. Their purpose should be to drive actual performance improvements aligned to meaningful goals.

Setting ESG Goals and Performance Targets

An essential complement to metrics is defining specific, time-bound ESG goals and performance targets that align to material impacts and stakeholder priorities.

For example, companies may set goals such as:

  • Reduce Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions 50% by 2030 from a 2019 baseline

  • Achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050

  • Source 100% renewable energy across operations by 2025

  • Ensure gender parity in senior leadership roles by 2030

  • Eliminate gender and racial pay gaps by 2025

  • Reduce workplace health and safety incident rates to near-zero

  • Have the board chaired by a diverse director by 2022

These types of concrete goals tied to material issues give companies direction for where to prioritize efforts and how to benchmark progress each year. They signal commitment to stakeholders.

Combining specific performance targets with the right metrics and KPIs to track them is crucial for ESG programs to drive meaningful change versus just measure the status quo.

ESG Reporting Software and Tools

Given the complexity of collecting, monitoring, and reporting on ESG data across global enterprise functions, many companies are turning to dedicated software solutions to streamline the process.

Some examples of ESG software tools include:

  • Data collection – Central platforms to aggregate ESG data from fragmented IT systems

  • Materiality assessment – Identify and prioritize the most relevant ESG factors to report on based on impact and stakeholder views

  • Report building – Automated reporting to populate ESG reports with frameworks, metrics, and data

  • Supply chain – Collect and monitor ESG performance across suppliers at scale

  • Carbon accounting – Calculate GHG inventories, scenario modeling, and footprint tracking

  • ESG benchmarks – Assess performance on key metrics relative to industry peers

  • Regulatory tracking – Monitor emerging ESG-related regulations and compliance

By integrating these tools, companies can reduce data gaps, improve consistency, identify hot spots, automate disclosures, and benchmark progress. Some leaders in the ESG software market include Enablon, Vigilance, and CSRWare.

Ultimately though, technology should support ESG strategy, not drive it. Objectives must come first.

Challenges and Criticisms of ESG Reporting

While adoption continues to accelerate, ESG reporting faces a number of challenges:

Data reliability – Unlike financial figures, verifying the accuracy of ESG data like emissions and diversity levels remains difficult. More rigor in processes, auditing, and transparency is needed.

Comparability –With differing frameworks and metrics, comparing ESG performance between companies is not straightforward. Greater alignment of standards through converged frameworks will improve benchmarking.

Intentionality – Some companies have been accused of ‘greenwashing’ with selective or misleading disclosures aimed more at bolstering reputation than driving change.

Integration – Linking ESG goals and performance data to core financial results and long-term enterprise value creation remains a work in progress. Modeling methodologies continue to advance.

Regulation – While voluntary in many regions, regulations around ESG reporting are increasing. This introduces legal and compliance risks if not managed appropriately.

Despite these growing pains, ESG reporting represents a positive shift toward stakeholder capitalism, ethics, and compassionate corporate leadership.

The journey has just begun. True success will be measured by real-world impact far more than reports.

The Bottom Line

ESG reporting enables transparency on how companies operate through the critical lenses of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, ethics, and governance. When executed with authentic intent, the focus on non-financial factors can drive meaningful improvement across the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profits.

But reporting alone is not the goal. It is one step on the path toward redefining the role of business in society and living up to our shared responsibility for the future.

With informed investors, empowered consumers, dynamic innovation, and enlightened leaders, a more just, resilient, and sustainable economy lies ahead. ESG reporting provides guideposts to help us get there.